Why Does Communication Breakdown in a Relationship? The Science, Misconceptions, and Solutions


Do you know why relationships sometimes fall apart? The answer may lie in communication breakdown. This crucial aspect of maintaining a healthy relationship is often overlooked or misunderstood. But fear not, as this article will delve into the science, debunk popular misconceptions, share real-life stories, and offer expert solutions to help you overcome this common obstacle. So, let's unravel the mysteries of communication in relationships and pave the way for smoother connections.

The Vital Role of Communication in Maintaining Relationships

In the grand scheme of our lives, relationships play a crucial role. Whether it's a romantic partnership, a friendship, or even a professional connection, relationships are the building blocks of our emotional well-being. But have you ever stopped to consider what holds these relationships together? The answer, my friend, lies in the power of communication1 .

Communication is the glue that keeps relationships intact, allowing us to connect with others on a deep and meaningful level. It is through communication that we express our thoughts, feelings, and needs, and truly understand those of our loved ones.

Expressing Emotions and Needs

Effective communication is a two-way street that fosters understanding and empathy. It is the tool through which we can express our emotions and needs, and also listen and respond to our partner's or friend's concerns. Without open and honest communication, misunderstandings, pent-up emotions, and unspoken expectations can fester, leading to resentment and distance in the relationship.

Think about a time when you felt misunderstood or ignored in a relationship. It probably left you feeling frustrated and disconnected. Now, imagine the power that transparent and compassionate communication could have in preventing such breakdowns, allowing you to foster trust and intimacy instead.

Building Trust and Intimacy

Communication is not just about expressing our emotions and needs; it is also a vehicle through which we build trust and intimacy. When we openly share our thoughts and vulnerabilities with someone, it creates a sense of closeness and connection. It lets the other person know that we value their presence in our lives and that we trust them enough to be authentic.

As Brené Brown, a renowned research professor, once said, "Vulnerability is the birthplace of love, belonging, joy, courage, empathy, and creativity. It is the source of hope, empathy, accountability, and authenticity2 ." In order to truly experience the depths of a relationship, we must be willing to open up and communicate honestly.

Navigating Conflict and Resolving Issues

No relationship is without its share of conflicts and challenges. However, it is how these conflicts are addressed and resolved that determines the strength and longevity of the relationship. Effective communication serves as a catalyst for conflict resolution, allowing both parties to express their perspectives while finding common ground.

Without communication, conflicts can escalate and become increasingly toxic. By fostering a safe and open environment for communication, we can prevent misunderstandings from snowballing into resentment and damage to the relationship.

In the words of John C. Maxwell, a bestselling author, "communication must be HOT: honest, open, and two-way3 ." By employing these principles in our relationships, we can tackle conflicts head-on and work together towards resolution.

The Power of Communication

By now, it should be clear that communication is the lifeblood of any relationship. It is the foundation upon which trust, intimacy, and understanding are built. Without effective communication, relationships can quickly unravel.

So, my friend, let us remember the vital role of communication in maintaining relationships. Let us prioritize open and honest dialogue, listening with empathy, and expressing ourselves clearly and authentically. By doing so, we can nurture and strengthen the connections we hold dear, and create a foundation upon which our relationships can thrive.

"Communication is the solvent of all problems and is the foundation for personal development." - Peter Shepherd4 .

Unveiling the Science Behind Communication Breakdown

Communication is the lifeblood of any relationship. It is the foundation upon which trust, understanding, and connection are built. When communication breaks down, relationships suffer. But have you ever wondered why this happens? What causes the breakdown in our ability to effectively communicate with our loved ones?

To find answers, scientists have delved deep into the intricate workings of human communication. They have deciphered the underlying mechanisms and shed light on the science behind communication breakdown. Their findings reveal fascinating insights about how we connect, interact, and sometimes fail to communicate effectively with one another.

One of the key factors in communication breakdown is the difference in communication styles between individuals. Each person has their unique way of expressing themselves, influenced by factors such as upbringing, culture, and personal experiences. This variance can lead to misunderstandings, misinterpretations, and conflicts within a relationship.

Dr. John Gray, author of the bestselling book Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus , explains, "Men and women have different communication styles. Men tend to be more direct and solution-oriented, while women often seek emotional connection and empathy. These differences can create frustration and misunderstandings if not understood or addressed."

Another aspect that contributes to communication breakdown is the lack of active listening. In our fast-paced world, we are often preoccupied with our thoughts and distractions, making it challenging to truly engage and listen to our partners. We may hear their words, but we fail to truly understand their emotions, needs, and desires.

Brain imaging studies have shown that when we actively listen, areas of the brain associated with empathy and understanding light up. This demonstrates the importance of attentive listening in effective communication. As Albert Einstein once said, "The greatest problem in communication is the illusion that it has been accomplished."

Furthermore, communication breakdown can occur when we fail to express ourselves clearly and assertively. We may assume that our partner knows what we want or how we feel, leading to unmet expectations and frustration. It is crucial to communicate our thoughts, feelings, and needs in a way that is respectful, honest, and direct.

Dr. Marshall Rosenberg, founder of Nonviolent Communication, emphasizes the significance of clear communication. He states, "Honesty is telling the truth, and integrity is doing something about it when you don't."

Moreover, unresolved conflicts and past resentments can also hinder effective communication. Emotional baggage from previous experiences can become barriers that prevent open and honest communication between partners. It is essential to address these issues, heal past wounds, and create a safe space for open dialogue.

In conclusion, understanding the science behind communication breakdown can profoundly impact our relationships. The differences in communication styles, lack of active listening, unclear expression, and unresolved conflicts all play a significant role. By acknowledging these factors and working towards open and effective communication, we can foster healthier and more fulfilling relationships.

So let us strive to be better communicators - to listen actively, express ourselves clearly, and create a safe space for open dialogue. As Maya Angelou wisely said, "Words mean more than what is set down on paper. It takes the human voice to infuse them with shades of deeper meaning."

Popular Misconceptions about Communication in Relationships

Communication is at the heart of every successful relationship. It serves as the foundation for understanding, trust, and connection between partners. However, there are several popular misconceptions about communication in relationships that can hinder its efficacy and create misunderstandings. Let's explore and debunk some of these misconceptions.

Misconception 1: "Good Communication Means Always Agreeing"

One of the most common misconceptions is that good communication implies always being on the same page and never having disagreements. However, in reality, healthy communication involves expressing one's opinions, needs, and desires honestly and respectfully. Disagreements are natural and can even strengthen a relationship if handled constructively.

Dr. John Gottman, a renowned relationship expert, emphasizes that "the difference between a happy marriage and a miserable one often comes down to how couples navigate their conflicts". So, disagreement itself is not the issue. The key is learning to communicate effectively and finding common ground.

Misconception 2: "Mind Reading is Essential"

Many people mistakenly believe that their partner should be able to understand their thoughts and feelings without explicit communication. This leads to assumptions and misunderstandings, often resulting in conflicts and frustration.

Psychologist Dr. John Grey explains, "Mind reading is a dangerous game, and it's a game that can lead to misunderstandings, hurt feelings, and unnecessary arguments". Instead of expecting our partners to read our minds, we should express our needs, desires, and concerns openly and directly.

Misconception 3: "Talking is the Only Form of Communication"

While verbal communication is important, it is not the only way we communicate in relationships. Nonverbal cues such as body language, facial expressions, and tone of voice also play a significant role in conveying messages.

According to renowned anthropologist Dr. Albert Mehrabian, only 7% of a message is conveyed through words, while 38% is transmitted through tone of voice and 55% through nonverbal cues. So, it's crucial to be aware of our nonverbal communication and to pay attention to our partners' nonverbal cues to truly understand their thoughts and emotions.

Misconception 4: "Communication Should Only Happen When There's a Problem"

Communication should not be limited solely to problem-solving. It is essential to establish open and ongoing communication in all aspects of a relationship to foster intimacy and connection.

As couples therapist Esther Perel emphasizes, "Good communication is the secret to a lifetime of love, intimacy, and friendship. It's about creating moments of emotional connection and intimacy every single day". Regular communication builds trust, strengthens the bond, and allows for shared experiences and growth.

Misconception 5: "Listening is Passive"

Contrary to popular belief, listening is an active and essential component of effective communication. It involves giving our full attention, being present, and understanding our partner's perspective.

Renowned author and motivational speaker Zig Ziglar once said, "The most important thing in communication is hearing what isn't said". Actively listening to our partner's thoughts, needs, and emotions demonstrates empathy and validates their experiences. It is through this active listening that we can truly connect and deepen our understanding of each other.

In conclusion, it is vital to be aware of these misconceptions and challenge them in our relationships. Effective communication requires active listening, expressing ourselves honestly, and being mindful of both verbal and nonverbal cues. By debunking these popular misconceptions, we can create healthier and more fulfilling relationships through open and honest communication.

couple kissing in front of trees
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Communication Crisis: Real-Life Stories

Communication is an essential aspect of any relationship. It is the key to understanding, resolving conflicts, and building a stronger connection with our loved ones. However, there are times when communication can break down, leading to misunderstandings, hurt feelings, and even the deterioration of the relationship itself. In this section, we will explore some real-life stories that highlight the challenges and consequences of communication crises in relationships.

The Tale of Sara and John

Sara and John had been together for six years, but lately, their relationship had been going through a rough patch. They had been arguing more frequently, and it seemed like they couldn't have a simple conversation without it turning into a heated debate.

One day, Sara discovered that John had been keeping a secret from her - he had lost his job a few months ago but hadn't told her. Frustrated and hurt, Sara confronted John, but instead of having an open and honest conversation, they ended up yelling at each other.

Sara: "How could you hide something like this from me? I thought we shared everything!"

John: "I didn't want to burden you with my problems. I was ashamed and afraid of disappointing you."

In this situation, it is evident that Sara and John both had good intentions, but their lack of effective communication only worsened the crisis. Sara felt betrayed because she believed that open communication was the foundation of their relationship. John, on the other hand, was trying to protect Sara's feelings but didn't realize that his silence was doing more harm than good.

The Misunderstandings of Mark and Lisa

Mark and Lisa had been married for ten years when they encountered a major miscommunication that put a strain on their relationship. It all started when Mark received a promotion at work and had to travel more often. Lisa, who was already juggling her career and taking care of their two children, felt overwhelmed and neglected.

One evening, Lisa expressed her frustration to Mark, but instead of sympathizing with her, Mark became defensive.

Lisa: "I feel like I'm doing everything on my own. You're never here when I need you!"

Mark: "I'm working hard to provide for our family! You should appreciate that instead of complaining."

This exchange of words only escalated the tension between them. Lisa felt unheard and unsupported, while Mark felt unappreciated for his efforts to maintain a stable income.

These real-life stories demonstrate how communication crises can impact relationships negatively. In both cases, the couples were unable to express their thoughts and emotions effectively, leading to misunderstandings, conflicts, and suffering.

It is essential to recognize that communication breakdowns can happen to anyone, regardless of the strength of the relationship. As human beings, we all possess different communication styles, backgrounds, and experiences. These differences can sometimes create barriers in effective communication, making it crucial for couples to address these challenges head-on.

In the next section, we will explore the insights shared by relationship experts, who shed light on the communication issues faced by couples and provide guidance for resolving them effectively.

Experts’ Views on Relationship Communication Issues

Effective communication is essential in any relationship, be it romantic or platonic. However, many couples struggle with various communication issues that can lead to misunderstandings, conflicts, and even the breakdown of the relationship. To shed light on this issue, we sought the insights of experts in the field of relationship psychology and communication. Here's what they had to say:

  1. Dr. John Gottman, a renowned psychologist and marriage expert, emphasizes the significance of emotional attunement in successful communication. He states, "In a healthy relationship, partners not only listen to each other's words, but they also make an effort to understand the emotions underlying those words." According to Dr. Gottman, emotional attunement requires active listening, empathy, and a genuine curiosity about each other's feelings.

  2. Dr. Sue Johnson, a leading expert in couples therapy, emphasizes the importance of understanding attachment needs in communication. She stresses, "When couples feel emotionally disconnected, they often resort to negative communication patterns, such as criticism, defensiveness, and withdrawal." Dr. Johnson suggests that partners should strive to create a safe and secure emotional bond by expressing their vulnerable feelings and needs.

  3. Dr. Gary Chapman, author of "The Five Love Languages," highlights the significance of understanding each other's unique communication styles. He explains, "People have different ways of expressing and receiving love, and it is crucial to identify and speak each other's love language." According to Dr. Chapman, the five love languages are words of affirmation, acts of service, receiving gifts, quality time, and physical touch. Understanding and meeting each other's love language can strengthen the bond and improve communication.

  4. Dr. Deborah Tannen, a linguistics professor and author, focuses on the differences in communication between men and women. She sheds light on how gender socialization can influence communication styles, leading to misunderstandings and conflicts. Dr. Tannen suggests cultivating awareness and understanding of these differences and finding ways to bridge the communication gap.

These experts all concur that effective communication is not merely about exchanging words but also about understanding emotions, meeting attachment needs, recognizing individual communication styles, and bridging gender differences. By embracing these insights, couples can develop healthier and more fulfilling communication patterns in their relationships.

man in blue dress shirt sitting on yellow chair
Photo by Mark Williams on Unsplash

Effective Solutions to Mitigate Communication Breakdown

Communication breakdowns can be incredibly frustrating and can even lead to the deterioration of a once healthy relationship. However, there are several effective solutions that can help mitigate these issues and restore harmony in your relationship.

Active Listening: The Key to Successful Communication

One of the most crucial aspects of effective communication is active listening. This means not just hearing the words that are being said, but truly understanding the underlying message and emotions behind them. As the famous psychiatrist Carl Rogers once said, "The most fundamental and important aspect of communication is listening."

To practice active listening, give your full attention to your partner when they are speaking. Put away distractions such as your phone or the television and maintain eye contact. Show genuine interest by nodding, smiling, and providing verbal feedback. This will help create an environment of trust and encourage your partner to express their thoughts and feelings openly.

Open and Honest Communication

Another essential solution to communication breakdown is fostering a culture of open and honest communication in your relationship. Many misunderstandings and conflicts arise from a lack of transparency or the fear of speaking up about sensitive topics. As American author Brian Tracy once said, "Communication is a skill that you can learn. It's like riding a bicycle or typing. If you're willing to work at it, you can rapidly improve the quality of every part of your life."

Make it a habit to discuss your feelings, concerns, and expectations in a calm and respectful manner. Encourage your partner to do the same. By establishing a safe space for open dialogue, you can address potential issues before they escalate, and work together to find mutually beneficial solutions.

Seek Professional Help

If communication breakdown persists despite your best efforts, seeking professional help can be a valuable solution. Relationship counselors or therapists are trained to facilitate healthy communication and provide tools and strategies to overcome challenges. They can help you and your partner gain a deeper understanding of each other's perspectives and teach you effective conflict resolution techniques.

Practice Empathy and Understanding

Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of another person. By putting yourself in your partner's shoes and genuinely trying to understand their experiences and emotions, you can create a stronger connection and foster healthier communication. As American author Maya Angelou once said, "I've learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel."

Expressing empathy involves validating your partner's emotions and acknowledging their perspectives, even if you may not fully agree. This allows for a more meaningful and constructive conversation, leading to a deeper connection and resolution of conflicts.

Continuous Learning and Improvement

Communication is a lifelong learning process, and it is important to continuously work on improving your skills. Read books and articles, attend workshops or webinars, or even consider enrolling in communication courses to enhance your understanding of effective communication techniques. By investing time and effort into improving your communication skills, you can build a solid foundation for a successful and fulfilling relationship.

In conclusion, communication breakdowns can be challenging, but they are not insurmountable. By actively listening, practicing open and honest communication, seeking professional help when needed, practicing empathy and understanding, and continuously learning and improving our communication skills, we can mitigate communication breakdowns and create healthier and more fulfilling relationships.

The Future of Communication in Relationships

As we move forward into an increasingly digital and interconnected world, the future of communication in relationships holds both promise and challenges. Technology has undoubtedly changed the way we communicate, allowing us to connect with loved ones across vast distances and share our lives instantly. However, with these advancements comes the need for a critical examination of how they impact our relationships.

The Impact of Technology

One cannot deny the convenience and speed that technology brings to modern communication. With just a few taps on a smartphone, we can send messages, make video calls, and even share our day-to-day activities through social media platforms. It has become an integral part of our lives, altering the way we connect with others and changing the dynamics of our relationships.

However, it is crucial to recognize that technology is a tool, and like any tool, it can be both beneficial and detrimental to our relationships. While it enables us to stay connected, it can also create a sense of superficiality and distance. As humans, we crave genuine connection and meaningful conversations. Losing sight of this can lead to a breakdown in communication, even when we are technologically connected.

The Rise of Social Media

In recent years, social media has become an ever-present force in our lives. It has transformed the way we communicate and interact with others, including our partners. Platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter provide avenues for sharing our thoughts, emotions, and experiences. However, they also present unique challenges for relationship communication.

On social media, we often curate our lives and present only the highlights, giving the illusion of a perfect relationship. This can lead to unrealistic expectations and unnecessary comparison, putting immense pressure on couples to portray an idealized version of their relationship. As a result, genuine and open communication can suffer, leading to misunderstandings and a lack of emotional connection.

Balancing Technology and Intimacy

In light of these challenges, it becomes essential for couples to find a balance between technology and intimacy. While technology allows us to connect instantly, it should never replace face-to-face communication and quality time spent together. Building trust, understanding, and empathy requires genuine presence and active listening, which cannot be fully achieved through virtual means.

Psychologist James W. Pennebaker highlights the importance of face-to-face communication, stating, "There's something special about the physical presence of someone. The fact that they're real and you can see their facial expressions and body movements. It helps to convey intimacy and emotional connection that even the best technology can't replicate".

Nurturing Communication Skills

To thrive in the future, it is crucial for couples to invest in developing strong communication skills. Instead of relying solely on technology, prioritize conversations that foster deep connections. This means actively listening, practicing empathy, and expressing emotions openly and honestly.

In her book "The Five Love Languages," relationship counselor Dr. Gary Chapman emphasizes the importance of understanding our partner's preferred way of giving and receiving love. By learning and speaking each other's "love language," couples can enhance their communication and strengthen their bond.

As technology continues to evolve, the future of communication in relationships will rely heavily on our ability to maintain a balance between technological connectivity and genuine intimacy. While technology has its benefits, it is crucial to prioritize open and meaningful face-to-face conversations. By nurturing strong communication skills and understanding our partner's needs, we can navigate the challenges of the digital age and build thriving and fulfilling relationships.

a group of people standing next to a waterfall
Photo by Joshua Tsu on Unsplash

Concluding Remarks: Prioritizing Open Communication

Effective communication is the lifeblood of a healthy relationship, serving as the foundation for intimacy, trust, and understanding. Throughout this article, we have explored the science and misconceptions behind communication breakdowns in relationships, heard real-life stories of couples who have experienced struggles, and gained insights from experts on how to address these issues. Now, let us wrap up our discussion with a reflection on the importance of prioritizing open communication in all aspects of our relationships.

In the fast-paced and ever-changing world we live in, it can be easy to let communication take a backseat. We find ourselves caught up in the demands of work, family, and personal responsibilities, leaving little time or energy for meaningful conversations. However, this neglect can have detrimental effects on our relationships.

open communication is the key to a thriving relationship. It is through open and honest dialogue that we build a strong connection with our partners, fostering understanding and empathy. Without it, misunderstandings and unresolved conflicts can fester, leading to resentment and distance. As renowned relationship expert Dr. John Gottman once said:

"Communication is the lifeblood of any relationship. When it becomes stagnant, the relationship withers and dies".

To prioritize open communication, we must first acknowledge that it requires effort and intention. Just as we invest time and energy into our careers and hobbies, we must dedicate the same commitment to nurturing our relationships. Here are a few practical steps we can take:

1. Create a Safe Space

Establishing an environment of safety and trust is crucial for open communication to flourish. Encourage your partner to express their thoughts and emotions without judgment or criticism. Be receptive to their perspectives, even if they differ from your own. By creating this safe space, you allow for open dialogue where both parties feel heard and valued.

2. Active Listening

Listening is more than just hearing; it is about fully engaging with your partner's words, both verbal and non-verbal. Practice active listening by maintaining eye contact, nodding in acknowledgment, and asking clarifying questions. Show genuine curiosity and empathy, validating their experiences and emotions. As American author and speaker Brian Tracy once said:

"Effective communication is 20% what you know and 80% how you feel about what you know".

3. Use "I" Statements

When discussing sensitive topics or expressing concerns, it is essential to use "I" statements instead of blaming or criticizing your partner. By framing your thoughts in terms of your own feelings and experiences, you convey your perspective without putting the other person on the defensive. This promotes open and non-confrontational communication, paving the way for fruitful discussions and conflict resolution.

4. Practice Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize and manage our own emotions while understanding and empathizing with others. By cultivating emotional intelligence, we can navigate difficult conversations with empathy and compassion. As American author Maya Angelou once said:

"I've learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel".

5. Regular Check-Ins

Just as we schedule appointments and meetings in our busy lives, it is essential to set aside regular time for relationship check-ins. This can be a weekly or monthly ritual where you and your partner sit down and discuss the state of your relationship, share any concerns, and express appreciation for each other. These conversations help you stay connected and address any communication gaps before they become larger issues.

In conclusion, communication breakdowns in relationships can be complex and challenging, but they are not insurmountable. By prioritizing open communication, we can build stronger connections with our partners, nurturing love and understanding. As the well-known British author, C.S. Lewis once said:

"You can't go back and change the beginning, but you can start where you are and change the ending".

So, let us embark on this journey of open communication and create the thriving relationships we deserve.


In today's fast-paced world, maintaining healthy and fulfilling relationships can be challenging. One of the key factors that can make or break a relationship is communication. As we have explored in this article, communication plays a vital role in building strong bonds and resolving conflicts. However, it is not uncommon for communication to break down, leading to misunderstandings, frustration, and even the deterioration of relationships.

Through scientific research, we have gained insight into the reasons behind communication breakdown. Factors such as lack of active listening, differing communication styles, and external stressors can all contribute to misunderstandings and miscommunication. It is important to dispel popular misconceptions about communication in relationships, such as the belief that partners should be able to read each other's minds or that love alone can overcome communication barriers.

Real-life stories of communication crises serve as a reminder that no relationship is immune to the challenges of communicating effectively. From stories of couples struggling to express their needs to individuals feeling invalidated by their partners, these accounts highlight the importance of addressing communication breakdown head-on. Experts in the field emphasize the need for open and honest communication, mutual understanding, and the cultivation of empathy and active listening skills. As renowned relationship therapist Esther Perel advises, "Good communication is the bridge between confusion and clarity, between conflict and connection."

To mitigate communication breakdown, it is important for individuals in a relationship to prioritize open communication and actively work on their communication skills. This may involve regular check-ins, setting aside dedicated time for open conversations, and seeking professional help if needed. The future of communication in relationships holds promise, as technology provides us with new tools and platforms to connect and express ourselves. However, it is crucial to remember that technology should never replace direct, face-to-face communication and the emotional connection it fosters.

In conclusion, effective communication is the foundation of a thriving relationship. While communication breakdown can be challenging, understanding the science behind it, debunking misconceptions, and seeking expert advice can help navigate the complexities of communication in relationships. By prioritizing open and honest communication, we can bridge the gaps, promote understanding, and foster stronger connections. As Maya Angelou once said, "Words mean more than what is set down on paper. It takes the human voice to infuse them with deeper meaning."

1John M. Gottman and Nan Silver, The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work (1999).
2Brené Brown, Daring Greatly: How the Courage to Be Vulnerable Transforms the Way We Live, Love, Parent, and Lead (2012).
3John C. Maxwell, Everyone Communicates, Few Connect: What the Most Effective People Do Differently (2010).
4Peter Shepherd, Transforming the Mind (2007).
5John Gray, Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus (1992)
6Albert Einstein, Einstein on Cosmic Religion and Other Opinions and Aphorisms (2009)
7Marshall B. Rosenberg, Nonviolent Communication (2003)
8Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969)
9Dr. John Gottman, "The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work" (2000).
10Dr. John Gottman, "The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work" (2000).
11Dr. John Grey, "Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus" (1992).
12Dr. Albert Mehrabian, "Silent Messages" (1971).
13Esther Perel, "Mating in Captivity: Unlocking Erotic Intelligence" (2006).
14Zig Ziglar, "See You at the Top" (1975).
15John Gottman, The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work (1999)
16Deborah Tannen, You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in Conversation (1990)
17John Gottman, "The Science of Trust: Emotional Attunement for Couples" (2011)
18Susan M. Johnson, "Hold Me Tight: Seven Conversations for a Lifetime of Love" (2008)
19Gary D. Chapman, "The Five Love Languages: The Secret to Love That Lasts" (1992)
20Deborah Tannen, "You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in Conversation" (1990)
21Marshall B. Rosenberg, Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life (2003)
22Sherry Turkle, "Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other" (2011)
23John Gottman, "The Relationship Cure: A 5 Step Guide to Strengthening Your Marriage, Family, and Friendships" (2001)
24Esther Perel, "Mating in Captivity: Unlocking Erotic Intelligence" (2006)
25John M. Grohol, "Psychology of Technology: The Impact of Technology on Relationships" (2018)
26James W. Pennebaker, "Opening Up: The Healing Power of Expressing Emotions" (1997)
27Gary Chapman, "The Five Love Languages: The Secret to Love that Lasts" (1995)
28John M. Gottman and Nan Silver, "The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work" (1999).
29John M. Gottman, "The Relationship Cure: A 5 Step Guide to Strengthening Your Marriage, Family, and Friendships" (2001).
30Brian Tracy, "The Power of Charm" (2006).
31Maya Angelou, "Letter to My Daughter" (2009).
32C.S. Lewis, "Mere Christianity" (1952).