Are you constantly putting off important tasks? Do you find yourself procrastinating time and time again, even though you know it's detrimental to your productivity and well-being? If so, you're not alone. Procrastination is a common habit that many people struggle with, and it can have a significant impact on various aspects of your life. Understanding why you procrastinate is the first step towards overcoming this obstacle and reclaiming your time and energy. So, let's dive into the psychology behind procrastination and explore some effective strategies to break free from its grip.
Procrastination: A Definition
Procrastination is a familiar foe to many of us. We've all experienced that nagging feeling of putting off important tasks until the last possible moment. But what exactly is procrastination? Why do we engage in this self-sabotaging behavior? And how can we overcome it to lead more productive lives?
Procrastination, simply put, is the act of delaying or postponing tasks that require our attention. It is the voluntary act of choosing to do something less important or pleasurable instead of tackling a task that has more significance or urgency1 . It is a behavior that stems from a combination of factors, including a lack of motivation, poor time management skills, and fear of failure or success2 .
As my friend Thomas Edison once said, "Procrastination is the thief of time"3 . Indeed, when we procrastinate, we waste precious moments that could be spent on accomplishing our goals and dreams. Instead, we find ourselves trapped in a cycle of avoidance, constantly putting off the tasks that truly matter to us.
Procrastination can manifest in various ways. It can be as simple as delaying household chores or errands, or as complex as avoiding important career or educational opportunities. It often leads to feelings of guilt, stress, and even self-doubt. When we continually put off tasks, we set ourselves up for a vicious cycle of anxiety and unmet expectations.
So why do we procrastinate? One common cause is a lack of motivation. We may struggle to find the drive and enthusiasm to complete a task, especially if it feels overwhelming or uninteresting. In these instances, we are more likely to engage in activities that offer instant gratification, such as scrolling through social media or watching television, instead of putting in the effort required to tackle the task at hand4 .
Another cause of procrastination is poor time management skills. We may underestimate the amount of time required to complete a task, leading us to believe we have more time than we actually do. This false sense of security encourages us to delay starting, leaving us scrambling to meet deadlines at the last minute5 .
Lastly, fear of failure or success can often play a significant role in our tendency to procrastinate. We may fear that our efforts will not meet our own high standards or the expectations of others. This fear can paralyze us and prevent us from taking the necessary steps to achieve our goals6 .
In conclusion, procrastination is the act of willingly delaying important tasks in favor of less significant or pleasurable activities. It is a common behavior that can stem from a lack of motivation, poor time management skills, or fear of failure or success. Procrastination can have detrimental effects on our lives, leading to increased stress, guilt, and unmet expectations. However, by understanding the root causes of procrastination and implementing effective strategies, we can break free from this cycle and accomplish our goals with greater ease and satisfaction.
The Psychology Behind Procrastination
Procrastination is a common behavior that many people struggle with. It can be frustrating and can hinder our ability to accomplish important tasks. But have you ever wondered why we procrastinate? What is it about certain tasks that make us put them off until the last minute?
Understanding the psychology behind procrastination is the first step towards overcoming it. Let's dive into the reasons why we tend to procrastinate and how it affects our daily lives.
The Comfort of Instant Gratification
One of the main reasons why we procrastinate is the allure of instant gratification. We are wired to seek pleasure and avoid pain, and this innate desire can often override our motivation to complete important tasks. When faced with a choice between an immediate reward (such as watching a movie or scrolling through social media) and a long-term goal (such as finishing a report or studying for an exam), our brains naturally gravitate towards instant gratification.
Fear of Failure and Perfectionism
Another psychological aspect of procrastination is the fear of failure. Many of us are afraid of not meeting our own or others' expectations, so we put off tasks to avoid the possibility of failure. This fear can be paralyzing, as the anticipation of negative outcomes can prevent us from taking any action at all.
Additionally, perfectionism is often connected to procrastination. We may delay starting a task because we want it to be perfect, fearing that it will not meet our own high standards or the expectations of others. This striving for perfection can lead to a never-ending cycle of procrastination and dissatisfaction.
Lack of Motivation and Task Aversion
Sometimes, we simply lack the motivation to complete a task. It might be a project that doesn't excite us or a task that seems overwhelming. When we don't feel motivated, it becomes easier to push it aside and focus on something more enjoyable or less demanding.
Task aversion is also a common reason for procrastination. We may find certain tasks boring, tedious, or unpleasant, and as a result, we delay working on them. We convince ourselves that we can do it later, when we are in a better mood or have more energy. However, this often leads to increased stress and pressure as deadlines approach.
Seeking the Rush of Last-Minute Pressure
Believe it or not, some people actually enjoy the thrill of last-minute pressure. They thrive under the adrenaline rush that comes from working against the clock. These individuals may intentionally delay tasks to create this pressure, as they believe it enhances their performance and creativity.
While some people may work well under pressure, for many of us, the stress and anxiety that comes with procrastination can be detrimental to our overall well-being and productivity.
Understanding the psychology behind procrastination is an important step in overcoming it. By recognizing the underlying reasons why we procrastinate, we can develop strategies to manage and prevent this behavior.
"You may delay, but time will not." - Benjamin Franklin
Common Causes of Procrastination
Procrastination is a common behavior that affects many people, regardless of their age or profession. It's that feeling when you know you should be doing something important, but you find yourself putting it off, finding other tasks or distractions to occupy your time. But why do we procrastinate? What causes this behavior?
Fear of Failure
One of the most common causes of procrastination is the fear of failure. We all want to succeed in our tasks and achieve our goals, but sometimes the fear of not meeting expectations or falling short can be overwhelming. This fear can paralyze us and prevent us from even starting the task at hand.
As Mark Twain once said, "The secret of getting ahead is getting started." It's important to remind ourselves that failure is a natural part of the learning process and that taking action, even if we might make mistakes along the way, is better than not trying at all.
Lack of Motivation
Another common cause of procrastination is a lack of motivation. When we don't feel inspired or energized to tackle a task, it becomes easier to postpone it. This lack of motivation can stem from various factors, such as feeling overwhelmed, not seeing the immediate reward or benefit, or simply not finding the task interesting.
To combat this lack of motivation, it can be helpful to break the task down into smaller, more manageable chunks. As Lao Tzu once said, "A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step." By focusing on one small step at a time, we can overcome the inertia and find the motivation to continue.
Procrastination can also be triggered by perfectionism. When we have high standards for ourselves and believe that we must achieve perfection, we may delay starting a task because we fear that we won't be able to meet those unrealistic expectations. This drive for perfection can create a cycle of procrastination as we constantly seek to avoid making mistakes or being judged.
It's important to remind ourselves that perfectionism is an impossible standard. As Brené Brown once said, "Perfectionism is not the same thing as striving to be your best. Perfectionism is the belief that if we live perfect, look perfect, and act perfect, we can minimize or avoid the pain of blame, judgment, and shame." By embracing our imperfections and focusing on progress rather than perfection, we can overcome the tendency to procrastinate.
Lack of Structure or Planning
A lack of structure or planning can also contribute to procrastination. When we don't have a clear roadmap or a plan in place, it's easy to feel overwhelmed and unsure of where to start. This lack of direction can lead to indecision and procrastination.
To combat this, it's important to establish a clear plan and set specific goals for each task. Breaking down the task into smaller, actionable steps can make it feel more manageable and help us stay focused and motivated.
Distractions and Procrastination Triggers
In our digital world, distractions are everywhere. From social media notifications to endless cat videos on YouTube, it's easy to get sidetracked and lose track of time. These distractions become procrastination triggers, pulling us away from important tasks and keeping us from making progress.
To avoid falling into the distraction trap, it's important to create boundaries and eliminate or minimize potential distractions. This could mean turning off notifications, setting specific work hours, or using productivity apps to block certain websites or apps during designated work times.
Procrastination can have a significant impact on our lives, leading to increased stress, missed opportunities, and a decreased sense of accomplishment. Understanding the common causes of procrastination is the first step toward overcoming this behavior.
By recognizing our fears, finding motivation, embracing imperfection, creating structure, and eliminating distractions, we can take control of our procrastination habits and achieve greater productivity and fulfillment in our lives.
How Procrastination Impacts Your Life
Procrastination can have a significant impact on various aspects of your life. It may seem harmless at first, but its effects can be far-reaching and detrimental. Here are some ways in which procrastination can impact your life:
Decreased productivity: By constantly delaying tasks and putting them off, you end up wasting valuable time and energy. This leads to decreased productivity and a decrease in the quality of work you produce. As Brian Tracy, the renowned motivational speaker, once said, "Procrastination is the thief of time."
Increased stress: Procrastination often leads to a build-up of stress and anxiety. When tasks pile up, deadlines loom, and you haven't started anything, it creates a tremendous amount of pressure. This can cause mental and emotional distress, which can affect your overall well-being.
Missed opportunities: Putting things off can result in missed opportunities. Whether it's a job opportunity, a chance to learn a new skill, or even pursuing personal goals, procrastination can lead to regrets and a sense of missed potential. As Leonardo da Vinci famously said, "It is easier to resist at the beginning than at the end."
Strained relationships: Procrastination can also have an impact on your relationships. Constantly delaying tasks can lead to unmet commitments, causing disappointment and frustration for those depending on you. Over time, this can strain relationships and erode trust.
Negative self-image: When you consistently procrastinate, you start to see yourself as someone who lacks discipline and self-control. This can have a negative impact on your self-esteem and self-confidence. As William James, the American philosopher, once said, "Nothing is so fatiguing as the eternal hanging on of an uncompleted task."
Financial consequences: Procrastination can also have financial implications. Delaying important financial decisions, such as paying bills on time or saving for retirement, can lead to unnecessary fees, penalties, and missed investment opportunities. As Dave Ramsey, the personal finance guru, writes in his book Financial Peace, "Procrastination is the foundation of all disasters."
Procrastination is not merely a harmless habit but a disruptive force that can affect almost every aspect of your life. Recognizing its impact is the first step towards overcoming it.
Ways to Overcome Procrastination
Procrastination is a habit that can greatly hinder our productivity and success. However, with determination and the right strategies, we can overcome it. Here are some effective ways to beat procrastination and start getting things done:
1. Break tasks into smaller steps
One of the reasons we often procrastinate is because tasks can seem overwhelming. To overcome this, break down your tasks into smaller, more manageable steps. This not only makes the tasks less intimidating, but also allows you to focus on one step at a time, increasing your chances of completion.
2. Set clear goals and deadlines
Without clear goals and deadlines, it's easy to put off important tasks. Take the time to set specific, achievable goals for each task and assign a realistic deadline to complete them. This sense of structure provides a sense of direction and urgency, making it harder to procrastinate.
3. Use a productivity technique
There are various productivity techniques that can help you overcome procrastination and stay focused. One popular technique is the Pomodoro Technique, which involves working in short bursts of intense focus, followed by short breaks. Another effective technique is the Eisenhower Matrix, which helps prioritize tasks based on their urgency and importance. Experiment with different techniques to find the one that works best for you.
4. Eliminate distractions
Distractions are a major contributor to procrastination. Identify what distracts you the most and take proactive steps to remove or minimize them. This could involve turning off notifications on your phone, blocking distracting websites, or finding a quiet workspace away from distractions.
5. Practice self-discipline
Overcoming procrastination requires self-discipline. Train yourself to resist the urge to procrastinate by developing good habits and routines. Create a schedule, stick to it, and hold yourself accountable for your actions. Remember, as motivational speaker Brian Tracy once said, "Your ability to discipline yourself... is the most important single quality that will help you achieve great success."
6. Reward yourself
Positive reinforcement can be a powerful tool in overcoming procrastination. Create a reward system for yourself where you treat yourself after completing a task or reaching a milestone. This can serve as motivation and make the task more enjoyable, helping to combat the urge to procrastinate.
7. Seek support and accountability
Sometimes, we need a little extra support to overcome procrastination. Share your goals and progress with a trusted friend, family member, or colleague. Having someone who can hold you accountable and provide encouragement can make a significant difference in overcoming procrastination.
Remember, beating procrastination is a journey that requires consistent effort and determination. By implementing these strategies and staying committed, you can break free from the habits of procrastination and achieve your goals.
Positive Affirmations to Beat Procrastination
One of the most effective ways to overcome procrastination is by using positive affirmations. Affirmations are powerful statements that can help reprogram your subconscious mind and change your mindset towards productivity. By repeating these affirmations regularly, you can create a positive shift in your thoughts and beliefs, ultimately helping you beat procrastination.
Here are some positive affirmations that you can use to overcome procrastination:
I am motivated and focused: By affirming this statement, you are reminding yourself that you have the inner drive to complete tasks and stay focused. Repeat this affirmation every morning to set the tone for a productive day.
I am capable of completing tasks efficiently: This affirmation reminds you that you have the skills and abilities necessary to complete tasks efficiently. Believe in your abilities and trust that you can accomplish anything you set your mind to.
I am in control of my time: Procrastination often makes us feel like time controls us, but by affirming this statement, you remind yourself that you are the one in control. Take charge of your time and make conscious choices to prioritize your tasks.
I am committed to achieving my goals: Procrastination often stems from a lack of commitment. By affirming your commitment to your goals, you reinforce your determination to overcome any obstacles and stay on track.
I am disciplined and consistent: Discipline and consistency are essential for overcoming procrastination. Remind yourself that you have the ability to stay disciplined and consistent in your efforts to complete tasks.
Remember, the power of affirmations lies in repeating them with belief and conviction. Visualize yourself being productive and overcoming procrastination as you repeat these affirmations. Allow them to fuel your motivation and help you develop a positive mindset towards productivity.
"Affirmations are our mental vitamins, providing the supplementary positive thoughts we need to balance the barrage of negative events and thoughts we experience daily." - Tia Walker
The Neuroscience of Procrastination
Procrastination is not just a matter of poor time management or laziness. It has a deep-rooted connection to our brain. Understanding the neuroscience behind procrastination can help shed light on why we struggle to start or complete important tasks.
The Brain's Reward System
Our brain has a built-in reward system that encourages us to seek pleasure and avoid pain. This system is governed by a neurotransmitter called dopamine. Dopamine is often referred to as the "feel-good" chemical because it brings a sense of pleasure and satisfaction. It is released in response to activities that are pleasurable or fulfilling.
When we procrastinate, our brain tricks us into thinking that we are avoiding pain and seeking pleasure. By putting off a task, we can indulge in immediate gratification, such as binge-watching our favorite TV show or scrolling through social media. These activities release dopamine, which gives us a temporary sense of pleasure and relief.
The Prefrontal Cortex and the Limbic System
The prefrontal cortex, a region at the front of the brain, plays a crucial role in decision-making, planning, and goal-setting. It helps us prioritize tasks, analyze consequences, and make informed choices. However, when we procrastinate, the prefrontal cortex struggles to assert control over the brain's reward system.
The limbic system, which includes the amygdala and the hippocampus, is another key player in procrastination. The amygdala is responsible for processing emotions, while the hippocampus is involved in memory formation. Research suggests that these areas of the brain may be overactive in procrastinators. This heightened emotional response makes it harder to resist the temptation of immediate gratification.
The Role of Impulsivity
Impulsivity also plays a role in procrastination. Some individuals are more prone to acting on impulse, seeking immediate rewards rather than delaying gratification for long-term benefits. This impulsivity is associated with decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex, making it harder to resist procrastination.
Understanding the neuroscience of procrastination can help us develop strategies to combat it. By recognizing the role of the brain's reward system, we can find alternative ways to satisfy the need for immediate pleasure. Breaking tasks into smaller, more manageable chunks and rewarding ourselves along the way can help maintain motivation and focus.
Moreover, strengthening the prefrontal cortex through mindfulness exercises and cognitive-behavioral therapy can improve our ability to prioritize and stay on task. These techniques help train the brain to resist immediate gratification and focus on long-term goals.
As the famous author, Mark Twain, once wisely said:
"Eat a live frog first thing in the morning, and nothing worse will happen to you the rest of the day."
In conclusion, procrastination is not a simple matter of willpower or laziness. It is rooted in the complex interplay between our brain's reward system, the prefrontal cortex, and our emotional responses. Understanding the neuroscience behind procrastination can empower us to overcome it and lead more productive lives.
Self-help Techniques for Preventing Procrastination
Procrastination can be a frustrating habit to break, but with the right techniques, you can overcome it and become more productive. Here are some self-help techniques that can help you prevent procrastination and get things done:
1. Break tasks into smaller steps
One of the reasons why we procrastinate is because we feel overwhelmed by the size of a task. By breaking it down into smaller, more manageable steps, it becomes less intimidating and easier to tackle. As the famous saying goes, "The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step."
2. Set realistic and achievable goals
Setting goals that are too ambitious or unrealistic can lead to feelings of failure and increase the likelihood of procrastination. Instead, set goals that are achievable and realistic within a given time frame. Celebrate your small wins along the way, as they will keep you motivated and discourage procrastination.
3. Create a schedule or a to-do list
Having a clear plan of what needs to be done and when can help you stay focused and avoid procrastination. Whether you prefer a daily schedule or a to-do list, find a system that works for you and stick to it. Make sure to prioritize your tasks based on their importance and deadline.
4. Eliminate distractions
Distractions can easily derail our productivity and lead to procrastination. Identify the distractions that tempt you the most and try to eliminate or minimize them. This may involve turning off notifications on your phone, finding a quiet workspace, or using website blockers to limit access to distracting websites.
5. Practice time management techniques
Effective time management is key to preventing procrastination. Try techniques such as the Pomodoro Technique, where you work for a set amount of time (e.g., 25 minutes) and then take a short break, or the Two-Minute Rule, where you commit to completing any task that takes two minutes or less immediately.
6. Find accountability and support
Having someone hold you accountable can be a great motivator to help you overcome procrastination. Share your goals and deadlines with a friend, family member, or colleague who can check in on your progress. Joining a study or accountability group can also provide support and encouragement.
7. Practice self-care and manage stress
Procrastination often goes hand in hand with stress and self-neglect. Taking care of your physical and mental well-being can help prevent procrastination. Make time for regular exercise, get enough sleep, practice relaxation techniques such as deep breathing or meditation, and seek support if you're feeling overwhelmed.
Remember, breaking the cycle of procrastination takes time and effort. Be patient with yourself and celebrate even the smallest victories. As 19th-century writer Louisa May Alcott once said, "I am not afraid of storms, for I am learning how to sail my ship." With these self-help techniques, you can overcome procrastination and achieve your goals.
Procrastination and Mental Health
Procrastination is not just a harmless habit of putting off tasks until the last minute. It can have serious implications for our mental health. The constant cycle of delaying important tasks can leave us feeling overwhelmed, anxious, and stressed.
Procrastination and Anxiety
One of the main mental health issues associated with procrastination is anxiety. Constantly postponing tasks can create a sense of urgency and pressure, leading to increased levels of anxiety. As the deadline approaches, the anxiety intensifies, causing even more stress and making it even harder to get started. This creates a vicious cycle, trapping us further into the procrastination habit.
Procrastination and Low Self-esteem
Procrastination can also have a detrimental effect on our self-esteem. When we consistently fail to meet deadlines or complete tasks, it can lead to feelings of incompetence and worthlessness. This negative self-perception further fuels our procrastination, as we begin to believe that we are incapable of accomplishing anything.
Procrastination and Depression
Depression is another mental health issue that is closely linked to procrastination. The constant avoidance of important tasks can lead to feelings of guilt, shame, and hopelessness. When we are unable to meet our own expectations, it can deepen our depressive symptoms and make it even more challenging to break free from the procrastination cycle.
Procrastination and Stress
Stress is a common consequence of procrastination. The more we delay tasks, the more pressure we put on ourselves to complete them within a limited timeframe. This constant stress can have both physical and emotional effects, such as difficulty sleeping, headaches, irritability, and a weakened immune system.
If you find that procrastination is negatively impacting your mental health, it's important to seek support. Talk to a trusted friend, family member, or mental health professional who can provide guidance and help you develop strategies to overcome procrastination. Remember, you're not alone in this struggle. Many people face similar challenges and can offer support and encouragement.
Procrastination may seem like a harmless habit, but it can have significant effects on our mental health. The anxiety, low self-esteem, depression, and stress that accompany procrastination can take a toll on our overall well-being. Recognizing the negative impact of procrastination on our mental health is the first step towards breaking free from this destructive cycle. With the right support and strategies, we can overcome procrastination and lead a healthier, more fulfilling life.
Inspirational Quotes to Keep You Motivated
Feeling unmotivated and struggling with procrastination can be incredibly frustrating. But don't worry, you're not alone! The good news is that there are simple yet powerful ways to overcome procrastination and stay motivated. Here are some inspirational quotes to keep you motivated on your journey:
- "The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams." - Eleanor Roosevelt
This quote reminds us that our dreams have the power to shape our future. When we believe in ourselves and our abilities, we can overcome any obstacles that stand in our way.
- "Success is not final, failure is not fatal: It is the courage to continue that counts." - Winston Churchill
In moments of setback or disappointment, it can be easy to lose hope. However, this quote reminds us that success and failure are not permanent. It's our willingness to persevere and keep moving forward that truly matters.
- "The only way to do great work is to love what you do." - Steve Jobs
Passion is a key ingredient in achieving greatness. When we genuinely love what we do, it becomes easier to find the motivation and drive necessary to excel. Find your passion and pursue it relentlessly.
- "Believe you can and you're halfway there." - Theodore Roosevelt
Self-belief is a powerful tool that can propel us forward. When we have faith in ourselves and our abilities, we are already halfway towards achieving our goals. Trust in your potential and embrace the journey.
- "Success is not in what you have, but who you are." - Bo Bennett
True success is not solely measured by material possessions or achievements. It is about personal growth, character development, and making a positive impact on those around you. Focus on becoming the best version of yourself.
- "Don't watch the clock; do what it does. Keep going." - Sam Levenson
Time can often feel like our biggest enemy when we're facing procrastination. However, this quote reminds us that instead of worrying about the passing time, we should remain focused and keep moving forward. Take small steps towards your goals, and the clock will become your ally.
- "The secret to getting ahead is getting started." - Mark Twain
Taking the first step is often the most challenging part of any endeavor. However, once we overcome that initial resistance, we open ourselves up to endless possibilities. Embrace the power of beginnings and start today.
Remember, overcoming procrastination is a journey that requires patience, determination, and self-compassion. These inspirational quotes can serve as constant reminders to stay motivated and continue pushing forward. Believe in yourself, embrace your dreams, and keep moving towards your goals.
"The best way to get something done is to begin." - Author Unknown
It is important to remember that overcoming procrastination is not a one-size-fits-all approach. Each individual may find different techniques effective in managing their procrastination tendencies. Whether it is positive affirmations, self-help techniques, or seeking professional help, the key is to take proactive steps towards breaking the cycle of procrastination. By understanding the underlying reasons for procrastination and implementing strategies to stay motivated and focused, individuals can unlock their true potential and achieve their goals. So, let us remember the wise words of an unknown author, "The best way to get something done is to begin."
2Timothy Pychyl, Solving the Procrastination Puzzle: A Concise Guide to Strategies for Change (2013)
3Thomas Edison, Inventor and Businessman (1847-1931)
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7Piers Steel, The Procrastination Equation (2010)
8Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richard's Almanack (1736)
9Mark Twain, "The secret of getting ahead is getting started."
10Lao Tzu, "A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step."
11Brené Brown, from "The Gifts of Imperfection."
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16David Allen, Getting Things Done (2001)
17Francesco Cirillo, The Pomodoro Technique (2013)
18Stephen R. Covey, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People (1989)
19Cal Newport, Deep Work (2016)
20Gretchen Rubin, Better Than Before (2015)
21Brian Tracy, No Excuses! (2010)
22Charles Duhigg, The Power of Habit (2012)
23Daniel Pink, Drive (2009)
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30Sarah Kate McGowan, The Anti-Procrastination Game (2020)
31Mark Twain, Autobiography of Mark Twain (1924)
32Brian Tracy, Eat That Frog! (2001)
33Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching (6th century BC)
34Louisa May Alcott, Little Women (1868)
35Piers Steel, The Procrastination Equation: How to Stop Putting Things Off and Start Getting Stuff Done (2011)
36Timothy A. Pychyl, Solving the Procrastination Puzzle: A Concise Guide to Strategies for Change (2013)
37Susan Shapiro, The Oxford Handbook of Happiness (2013)
38Marsha Linehan, Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder (1993)
39Robert Sapolsky, Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers (2004)
40Tal Ben-Shahar, Happier: Learn the Secrets to Daily Joy and Lasting Fulfillment (2007)
41Karen Young, Hey Warrior: A Book for Kids About Anxiety (2017)
42Eleanor Roosevelt, You Learn by Living (1960)
43Winston Churchill, The Second World War (1948)
44Steve Jobs, Stanford University Commencement Speech (2005)
45Theodore Roosevelt, Speech at the Minnesota State Fair (1901)
46Bo Bennett, Year to Success (2008)
47Sam Levenson, Television and Screenwriting: From Concept to Contract (2008)
48Mark Twain, Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc (1896)